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Since the twentieth century, since the mid-eighties, virtual instrument technology has been combined with a modular hardware, development software and PC technology, which enables users to create custom software instruments. Software-defined functions than the vendor-defined way of desktop devices for greater flexibility, and because PC-based technology, they are able to achieve faster advanced features.

Now in test applications using virtual instrument technology has become mainstream. Most testing industry has accepted the concept of virtual instrumentation, or a preference for virtual instrumentation. For example, a representative of the U.S. military, though not the leader in technology trends, but also in widespread use of virtual instrumentation. As the world’s largest ATE (Automated Test Equipment) independent users, the U.S. Department of Defense has in their comprehensive instrument to promote the use of the concept of software-based devices. Report to Congress, the Defense Ministry said: “In the development of integrated devices, with the commercialization of new technologies in real time to configure the instrument to achieve a variety of testing capabilities …… a single integrated device can replace multiple independent function of the instrument, thus reducing the volume of logistical equipment and to address the problem of aging equipment. “[February 2002, the Ministry of Defence Office of the technical improvement report to Congress]. Integrated instrument and virtual instrument technology with commercial hardware and software processing features, these two together can create user-defined instrument.

Present, thousands of major companies have started using virtual instrumentation. Detection only in the production, like Lexmark, Motorola, Delphi, ABB and Philips have these industry leaders in key projects, large-scale product test applications using virtual instrumentation hardware and software. In the industrial field, the virtual instrument technology has been used for automation of oil drilling and refining, production of machine control, and even nuclear reactor control.

The problems of traditional instruments and innovators
ClaytonChristensen of the same name as described in the book, traditional instruments will suffer in the meantime, “innovators of the problem.” Christensen is described this phenomenon: the JDSU Acterna DSAM-2000 xt CATV Meter new breakthrough technology will change the market outlook and ultimately overthrow the market leader position. In fact, Christensen that the market leader in new technologies is very difficult to reverse after leading the market up. In test and measurement field, the traditional instruments by using the existing structure to improve the measurement performance and continuous innovation along this direction. In the early days of virtual instrumentation, measurement of performance because of its relatively low, so in this case, the breakthrough technology with traditional instrumentation, and without much threat, so they largely ignored the virtual instrument technology existence. However, the twentieth century, the late eighties and early nineties, the virtual instrument technology been applied to measure the need for flexibility, which are applied by conventional methods can not be achieved. To the late nineties and the twenty-first century, with the PC processor and the commercialization of semiconductor performance and further improve the accuracy of the virtual instrument technology, measuring performance has improved much more than the original. Now, the virtual instrument technology and performance of traditional instruments of measurement equal to or exceed them, but also has a higher data rate, flexibility, scalability, and lower system cost.

In the consumer goods market in order to prove the “innovators problems” this principle, we can compare MP3 and traditional broadcast media such as CD. The beginning of the traditional audio equipment manufacturers are not aware of the threat of MP3 player?? After all, MP3 sound quality decreased, and when you need to play PC and specialized software. On the other hand, CD player, is easy to use and have a special user interface (buttons and knobs). However, due to sharing of MP3 and portable with easy-to-edge, so despite its shortcomings, is still in the early birth praised by some users. Over time, MP3 quality has been acceptable and MP3 player software has also been a great development. MP3 has become mainstream now, and the traditional audio recording and playback industry caused a great threat. Although many traditional player manufacturers through the development of the final JDSU Acterna DSAM-2000 xt player with MP3 function to shift to this breakthrough technology (Sony recently introduced a MP3Walkman), but the new market has been the first introduction of MP3 technology, led the company. For example, Apple has captured the hard disk based music player sales, 82% [NPD, 2004 8 months].

In test and measurement market, an industry leader Agilent has also introduced the concept of virtual instrumentation. For example, Agilent recently introduced products include a set of Ethernet-based “integrated equipment” and is compatible with PXI arbitrary waveform generator, and the industry-standard PXI is the platform for virtual instrumentation. Agilent’s JohnStratton also recently expressed support for software-defined and comprehensive equipment concept: “and the current standard use of rack solutions, another option is to use the integrated devices. Integrated device uses software algorithms and hardware modules to replace the separate The test unit. “[the military and aerospace electronics, June 2004]. In a recent investor conference, the Agilent’s chief operating officer BillSullivan proposed, “to use the software-based modular instrumentation configuration, allowing users to easily configure and re-use to repeat, it will be testing and measuring the direction of future development . ”

PC performance and reduce cost innovation
In the past two decades, PC’s performance has improved 10,000-fold, not to any other business of technology there had been such a high performance growth. As the use of virtual instrumentation for measurement of PC processors, each with the emergence of a new generation of PC processors, the use of virtual instrument technology new applications can be achieved. For example, the current 3GHzPC can be used to carry out complex analysis of frequency domain and modulation for use in communications test applications. Using the 1990 PC (Intel386/16), 65,000 points of the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform for spectral analysis of the basic measurement) needs 1100 seconds. And now the P4 3.4GHz computer using the FFT to achieve the same offer just 0.8 seconds [Ffbench, JohnWalker].

At the same time, hard disk, display, and bus bandwidth has a similar performance improvement. A new generation of high-speed PC bus bandwidth can provide up to PCIExpress 3.2GBytes / s, which can be used PC architecture to achieve high bandwidth measurements. Some companies claim to be giving way to high-speed internal bus such as Ethernet and

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Measurement of Safety
*Dr.P.Shanmukha Rao **Dr.N.V.S.Suryanarayana
Various rates and ratios can be computed to indicate the progress the safety department is making in its job to employees and management. These rates can be computed periodically, say, on a quarterly basis, both for the company as a whole and for each line department. Two important measures of safety widely recognized and used in business are as follows:
(a) Frequency rates: This is expressed as the number of lost-time accidents per million man-hours worked. The formula to calculate this rate is:
JDSU Acterna DSAM-2000 xt CATV Meter Number of lost-time accidents
—————————————- * 1,000,000
Number of man- hours worked
A lost-time accident is one which makes an employee unable to work on one or more days following the accident.
(b) Severity rate: This is expressed as the number of days lost due to accidents per million man-hours worked. The formula for this is:

Number of days lost due to accidents
—————————————- ——– * 1,000,000
Number of man- hours worked
New Techniques in Accident prevention
Three new techniques of accident prevention which have recently developed in industrially advance countries of the West are:
I. Damage control.
II. Human engineering or ergonomics.
III. Systems safety.

Damage control:
Heinrich in his book Industrial Accidents Prevention postulates that before a given set of circumstances can lead to a lost-time accident, there would be 29 accidents involving minor injuries and 300 near-accidents involving no injury caused by the same set of circumstances. However, this theory does not go so far as to accurately predict when the lost-time injury would occur. Lukens Steels of the United States have conducted systematic research to evolve a method that would predict accurately when the lost-time injury would occur. Their study concludes that every accident is preceded by a series of minor injuries and incidents which can be said to occur in the following six steps:

At stage one; the situation has an accident potential only. There may be something unsafe in the working environment or wrong attitude to safety in a certain department. Unsafe acts may occur due to inefficient supervision.

At sage two; the accident potential is realized and dangerous incidents do in fact occur. But as it is near miss, there is no injury and no damage to plant or equipment.

At stage three; the near-miss becomes a hit and plant and equipment are damaged. But people are not involved. Therefore, no injury is recorded.

At stage four; people are involved. The accident causes minor injuries to people as well as possible damage to plant and equipment.

At stage five; the injuries caused by an accident are serious enough to keep the worker away for more than three days.

At stage six, the injuries received prove fatal.

Lukens steels experts have, therefore, established that adequate number of sign and indications would be available to those who can keep their eyes and mind watchful and a documentation of these indicators would help exercise a better control over the situations and factors leading to damage. This is damage control. One should note that it is not the same as conventional accident control. It concentrates attention on injury potential at the pre-injury stage

Human engineering or ergonomics:
Ergonomics is the science that deals with the many-sided problems of how to fit a job to man’s anatomical, physiological and psychological characteristics to enhance human efficiency and well-being. Thus ergonomics is the application of knowledge of human capabilities and limitations to the design of plant and equipment. An equipment designed on the principles of human engineering is far less likely to be a source of accident than one designed without such considerations.
Systems safety:
A system is an orderly arrangement of components which are interrelated and which act and interact to perform some task or function in a particular environment. All the components of a system are complementary to each other. Accidents occur when any one part of the system fails or malfunctions. Certainly if the entire industrial system was under complete control, no accident would result. The systems approach gives rise to use of advanced quantitative techniques and computers.
Health Programme (Protection of workers against health hazards):
The prevention of accidents constitutes only one segment of the function of employee maintenance. Another equal important segment is the employee’s general health, both physical and mental. The factors which influence the general health of the worker can be divided into two broad groups, namely:
(i) Those which are associated with his working environment and
(ii) Those which he shares with the rest of the community.
As regard the second, it seems reasonable to hold that the workers should have the facilities for health protection that the state provides for the general population. But as regards the factors in the working environment which tend to produce ill health, the worker has the right to demand special measures for his protection.

Every employer should protect his employees against health hazards:

By substituting a less toxic substance for the hazardous one.

By providing protective clothing, storing, handling and warning services.

By providing adequate safety education and warning.

By devoting adequate attention to working conditions such as proper lighting, temperature, ventilation, noise, etc.

Health and Safety measures also boost morale of the employees. This helps in developing team spirit and the sense of belongingness among the employees as they see no hazards to their lives and health.

The nature of study conducted to analyze the safety & health programmers conducted by the management and the satisfactory levels of the employees is exploratory in nature because the research is primarily undertaken to identify the problems and to discover more ideas and insights about the problems faced by the employees.

These provisions impose upon the occupiers or managers certain obligations, to protect workers unwary as well as negligence from accidents and to secure for them in employment conditions conductive to their health & safety.

Interest and concern is shown by employers, JDSU Acterna DSAM-2000 xt employees and their unions, government, and public and international organizations. Both complex technologies and governmental legislation have levied a special burden upon employers to maintain the physical and mental wellbeing, health and safety of their employees.

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To be JDSU Acterna DSAM-2000 xt able to check electronic parts accurately is crucial to identifying faults for any electronic repairer.
High quality electronic testing equipment is thus much sought after.
If you’re involved in electronic repairs, professionally or just as a hobby, you may recognize simply how much time smart equipment saves you. Normally, but, this type of kit to check electronic parts will be comparatively expensive, particularly for do it yourself enthusiasts and folks brooding about beginning a little or half-time business.

What several individuals are unaware of is just how easy it’s to create your own gear and multimeter to test electronic components to the standards of prime of the vary brands, but at a fraction of the cost. All you would like is the required know-how.
There are some guides obtainable to show beginners how to check electronic parts and how to repair electronic devices and appliances. You ought to be trying for the subsequent things when evaluating such a guide.

Good electronic test guides ought to embrace the following:
First, check the author’s credentials. Will he perform skilled electronic repairs? Is he an electronics testing instructor? Do his directions appear to be simple to follow and well laid out? Does he provide a guarantee if you are not totally glad along with his manual?

Will he identify having the ability to test electronic elements with electronic repair? He ought to remember that repairs are simple if you have got the right equipment to spot problems. And is his manual fairly priced?

Secondly, build positive any guide not only explains how to make your own testing equipment however additionally explains which equipment to use for specific jobs, how you actually employ that equipment, what to test for and in what sequence. It’s all very well to own superior testing equipment to hand however if there’s no methodology to follow in testing, you will just be wasting your time.

Without doubt, working out how to test electronic parts will become quite complex. Much like wiring a house or office, while not correct plans to figure from, even the specialists can become confused. If your systems of fault identification are not clear and simple to follow, frustration and disaster lie ahead.

Therefore, build sure any guide includes simply comprehensible diagrams and descriptions.
Ensure your guide does not just cowl the basics. Half of the explanation for making your own kit to test electronic components is to provide yourself a plus over other electronics testers. Most equipment that’s declared unrepairable is, after all, eminently repairable.
Normally the tester simply has not been ready to identify the matter; if he could determine the fault, it is not usually beyond repair.

Ensure any manual also JDSU Acterna DSAM-2000 xt covers testing for faults and shorts using an analogue meter and the way to create such a meter. It will prove to be invaluable in cases where a digital meter has its inherent shortcomings.
Therefore, to reiterate, superior testing equipment is important, however no less important is having foolproof plans of testing to work through thus the fault is not missed. The order of testing is very important in the sense of saving time by testing for the most common faults first and thus on. A good guide should conjointly embrace a comprehensive troubleshooting section.

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To get higher precision of data acquisition capability, Test And measurement equipment, engineers, designers, high common-mode voltage in the case of impact of the system to measure small signal change is a challenge. These high voltage is mainly connected by two ground potential difference between, or as lightning or motor / switching equipment caused by mutations in the power surge generated by transient overvoltage. The voltage will not only affect the measurement accuracy, and they may damage the system itself and the risk of electric shock caused by the user.

Isolators needed to provide physical separation between the two systems and electrical isolation in order to avoid the circuit between the two systems or two mutations in voltage surge damage. They need to provide both the lead and the common ground the two signals occurs between the common-mode voltage range and higher, which is measured in series Battery Examples of voltage between the groups is important. Electrical system ground loops is to use the public path between two points in the extra current, and isolators for DSAM-2000 xt the cut is very important to them, and has been widely applied in the detection system differential voltage measurement. In addition, the isolator can be used as level converters to resolve the system or circuit voltage level between the different compatibility.

Used in the measuring equipment can not only safeguard the isolator system security, and protection for the user also has a high importance was, therefore, provides a high-voltage equipment design safety standards. Currently there are two main criteria in this respect, namely test and measurement instruments applicable to the IEC61010-1, and apply information technology equipment, IEC60950-1. In this standard, 30Vrms and 40.2V peak or 60VDC voltage is defined as hazardous. Therefore, in this user-friendly access to the ultra-low-voltage circuits require isolators. There are many markets with different insulation rating of isolation products, usually divided into functional, basic, double and reinforced so. Functional does not provide protection against electrical shock isolators; basic model is only a single basic insulation level, the user will not directly contact; double insulation above the increase in the basic insulation in order to provide additional support to electric shock protection; enhanced the is to provide and double the same level of shock protection, and ensure that invalid insurance model (failsafemode).

Failure Insurance is detected when the system failure or an error occurs, automatically stop running and to maintain the security status of components of the system termination mode, which allows users to securely access. In addition to the work of insulation type and rated voltage, the standard also defines the different spacer devices space requirements, creepage distance (creepagedistance) and Clearance (clearancedistance). Of these, creepage distance is defined as two electrical isolation between conductors of solid dielectric on the surface of the shortest path, the external electrical isolation gap is two electric conductors or the shortest distance through the air, the visual range of their distance. Peak working voltage is 300V for example, the system required creepage distances to reach 3-4mm.

Isolator can also signal transmission technology according to different classification of, there are three types, divided into magnetic, capacitive, and optical isolators. Using magnetic coupling transformer isolator is usually more efficient, widely used in long distance applications, it is essentially not available to absorb the excess frequency of physical isolation, and vulnerability to magnetic interference. Capacitive isolators will be in the oxide barrier layer on the transmission of data, however, because the device itself features a capacitor, so easy to work in high frequency by high frequency noise, thereby reducing the resistance to voltage transients and to reduce isolation.

Figure 1: Digital Avago Optocoupler

As ACPL-072L-000E, HCPL-0723-000E and ACSL-6400 used in testing and test equipment, data acquisition module.

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