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To get higher precision of data acquisition capability, Test And measurement equipment, engineers, designers, high common-mode voltage in the case of impact of the system to measure small signal change is a challenge. These high voltage is mainly connected by two ground potential difference between, or as lightning or motor / switching equipment caused by mutations in the power surge generated by transient overvoltage. The voltage will not only affect the measurement accuracy, and they may damage the system itself and the risk of electric shock caused by the user.
Isolators needed to provide physical separation between the two systems and electrical isolation in order to avoid the circuit between the two systems or two mutations in voltage surge damage. They need to provide both the lead and the common ground the two signals occurs between the common-mode voltage range and higher, which is measured in series Battery Examples of voltage between the groups is important. Electrical system ground loops is to use the public path between two points in the extra current, and isolators for the cut is very important to them, and has been widely applied in the detection system differential voltage measurement. In addition, the isolator can be used as level converters to resolve the system or circuit voltage level between the different compatibility.
Used in the measuring equipment can not only safeguard the isolator system security, and protection for the user also has a high importance was, therefore, provides a high-voltage equipment design safety standards. Currently there are two main criteria in this respect, namely test and measurement instruments applicable to the IEC61010-1, and apply information technology equipment, IEC60950-1. In this standard, 30Vrms and 40.2V peak or 60VDC voltage is defined as hazardous. Therefore, in this user-friendly access to the ultra-low-voltage circuits require isolators. There are many markets with different insulation rating of isolation products, usually divided into functional, basic, double and reinforced so. Functional does not provide protection against electrical shock isolators; basic model is only a single basic insulation level, the user will not directly contact; double insulation above the increase in the basic insulation in order to provide additional support to electric shock protection; enhanced the is to provide and double the same level of shock protection, and ensure that invalid insurance model (failsafemode).
Failure Insurance is detected when the system failure or an error occurs, automatically stop running and to maintain the security status of components of the system termination mode, which allows users to securely access. In addition to the work of insulation type and rated voltage, the standard also defines the different spacer devices space requirements, creepage distance (creepagedistance) and Clearance (clearancedistance). Of these, creepage distance is defined as two electrical isolation between conductors of solid dielectric on the surface of the shortest path, the external electrical isolation gap is two electric conductors or the shortest distance through the air, the visual range of their distance. Peak working voltage is 300V for example, the system required creepage distances to reach 3-4mm.
Isolator can also signal transmission technology according to different classification of, there are three types, divided into magnetic, capacitive, and optical isolators. Using magnetic coupling transformer isolator is usually more efficient, widely used in long distance applications, it is essentially not available to absorb the excess frequency of physical isolation, and vulnerability to magnetic interference. Capacitive isolators will be in the oxide barrier layer on the transmission of data, however, because the device itself features a capacitor, so easy to work in high frequency by high frequency noise, thereby reducing the resistance to voltage transients and to reduce isolation.
Figure 1: Digital Avago Optocoupler
As ACPL-072L-000E, HCPL-0723-000E and ACSL-6400 used in testing and test equipment, data acquisition module.